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南岳旅游发展问题浅识

偶要写作一篇有关南岳文化旅游发展问题的调研文,各位仁兄、爱岳朋友多多指点哈
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南岳祭祀文化旅游发展浅识
: U' F+ {7 m# o5 ^. z' M) e5 ~作为具有中国古老的本土文化特质的中国五岳之一南岳衡山,自然风景与人文景观旅游资源极其丰富,自古享有“五岳独秀”、“中华寿岳”、“文明奥区”、“宗教圣地”等美誉。巍巍南岳衡山,是我国唯一佛道并存的名山,宗教文化历史悠久,源远流长,南岳佛道教千百年来共存共荣的独有特色,为中国乃至世界名山所罕见。具有“江南小故宫”之称的南岳大庙, 是我国南方现存最大的古庙之一,是一处集民间祠庙、佛教寺院、道教宫观三者于一体的古建筑群,是南岳宗教文化活动的中心,是历代帝王代表国家祭祀山川社稷的场所,也是来岳朝香进香客人的集聚地,更是南岳发展宗教祭祀文化旅游的重地。, B! B4 m! ?  \; i# z- t7 g: B8 `+ m
近年来,南岳衡山先后荣获“首批国家5A级旅游景”“最受群众喜爱的中国十大风景名胜区”、“全国宗教工作先进集体”等称号,旅游业是南岳区的主导产业,也是南岳经济收入的支柱行业,“集天下之人才发展南岳,聚天下之钱财建设南岳”已成共识,如何发展利用好南岳丰富的旅游资源成为重中之重。面对如此深厚又富有底蕴的南岳旅游文化,为更好地认识、发展和利用南岳文化旅游,笔者试图谈谈南岳宗教祭祀文化这方面的一些浅识。
9 Q' ?2 X8 g* H一、南岳祭祀文化历史悠久,极具地方特色。' P3 Q3 k0 U7 i6 G# ]; F- p" p2 T  I
相传,衡山最高峰乃祝融栖息之所,他教人以火熟食,使人类进入熟食阶段,后人尊为火神。死后升天,他又被天帝任命主管人间福禄寿荫,因而倍受世人尊崇。历代帝王更是屡加封号,届时隆重祭祀,祈求“以卫社稷,而福生灵”。祝融氏也是被大多数人认为的南岳衡山之神,被历代帝王公卿、文人学士、乃至庶民百姓尊崇为“位在翼轸,德尊离?,昭融万类,涵育群灵”的神祗,而且是一位名副其实的中华南方人文始祖,他就是后人所朝拜的“南岳圣帝”。朝拜南岳圣帝的典礼,起源很古,大致经历了“柴望”和“庙享”阶段。从隋代起,南岳就兴建了专祀岳神的庙宇。南岳庙是历代朝祭方岳的主庙。各代王朝隆重的祀礼,雄伟壮丽的宫殿,重臣名士出任南岳庙监,皇帝给南岳的封号、匾额等诸多因素,使南岳庙、南岳神在民间以致各阶层中产生了深远而巨大的影响。南岳庙既为封建王朝所祭祀,又为黎民百姓朝拜,千百年来香火不断,屡兴不衰。
/ d/ Y! K! O  z9 j! ?0 ?. H8 b/ ?民间祭祀活动又称南岳进香,历唐、宋、元、明、清,直至民国有增无减。现在,每年旅游客人和进香客人均在300万以上,南岳庙已成为必游之地和香客朝拜之处。南岳庙有寿佛殿,半山亭上有寿佛寺,岳庙后更有万寿宛、万寿广场、中华万寿大鼎、福寿寺。每年农历二月初八和七月中旬至九月底,省内外各地香客纷纷赶来南岳进香,祈求南岳神灵为之添寿、消灾。祈福求寿最具南岳特色,南岳民俗以“寿岳”为依托,以庆寿、祈寿、贺生、求寿为内容,采用多种方式,由古至今一脉相传,具有鲜明的地方特色,香客云集也就成为自然之理。
9 Z* X" J$ n7 b1 _5 A南岳祭祀朝香文化源远流长,是古代文化的一个重要组成部分。从大禹南岳烧香祈祷上天赐金简玉书,得治水之法算起,已有四千余年历史。进香对象,既有神灵、祖先,又有历史上尽忠职守、以身报国的名臣、英烈和对民族文化特别是湖湘文化卓有贡献的巨彦鸿儒。日积月累,南岳朝香形成独特的地方进香文化。, Y1 }" S7 }3 N: Y) J
二、南岳祭祀文化的社会功能
4 F9 u: Q' {% z' v3 c2 [2 y一般来说,祭祀是为了祈祷,人们向神灵禀陈自己的愿望和追求,希冀其能帮助达到和实现。在南岳衡山这片古老神圣的土地上,几千年的禅宗文化,几千年的祭祀文化,自有着流传的根基和理由,为社会民众所接受的社会功能。
3 a; \0 L7 ]4 T4 F  s祭祀有治理国家的功能。自唐以后,南岳就成为了朝廷的祭祀重地,朝廷派遣祭岳专使来岳祭祀祈祷,祈祷国家太平盛治,社会安定,风调雨顺,国强民富。可见,在古代祭祀已成为治国之本。现代治国非靠祭祀,而宗教作为一国的文化之一,无可否认,宗教祭祀仍有其特殊的治国凝结功能。) A7 Q) S3 I, N7 q9 x# L
祭祀有着强烈的心理寄托功能。天有不测风云,人都有生、老、病、死的自然过程,期盼美好平安的生活,实现健康长寿的愿望,是人皆众望,南岳庙就成为民间祈祷者的最佳去处。来自五湖四海的人们,进岳庙烧香祈祷,朝拜圣帝,求神灵保佑,许下各种诺言,也称为许愿。南岳岳神佛光普照,菩萨灵验,有求必应,既保远又保近,致使民间的求寿祈福之人趋之若鹜。这种求寿祈福的美好愿望得已寄托,是人们对现实追求的一种朴素表现,也是人们的共同心愿所在。; ]' X; W8 Y$ S) K9 \
祭祀有社会教化的功能。民间进香祈福,多与行孝结合在一起,祈愿父母健康长寿,万事如意。按照传统,来岳进香者,一般都是口唱《十愿歌》,虔诚烧香拜佛,愿父母登寿域、多福泽、无灾厄、德望高等。对父母长辈的孝敬,享誉天下的儒家更推崇祭祀孝治文化,这种伦理孝道的教化功能就更为显著。
$ R2 M7 B$ M! v0 e. T$ b2 X三、挖掘和宣传南岳文明祭祀旅游文化5 f) W# X8 U  Z. u$ e; K6 B
虽然人们的思想观念、价值取向、生活方式、消费能力在不断变化,但人们在祭祀上求寿祈福的内涵却未变。宗教祭祀文化是南岳旅游文化的重要组成部分,打响南岳文化旅游这张牌,祭祀文化的挖掘宣传也是重要的部分,实现南岳衡山的心愿之旅、有求必应是个关键。' ^+ d" @) R1 z1 u$ h7 `
充分发掘和挖掘南岳古老深厚的祭祀文化。祝融火神被尊崇为“南岳圣帝”历史深远,影响广泛,在市民阶层中,作为南岳及其周边人们虽有所了解,但很多时候也不是那么透彻详尽,各相关单位就可以组织学习,加强其对本土文化的了解与研究,提升自身认识水平,挖掘深层次的文化内核,形成良好的文化气息和氛围,充分利用旅游资源,提高旅游价值。在日常生活中,无形中随时向来岳祭祀旅游的香客详细介绍南岳有关进香朝拜、求神拜佛等知识,使其产生一种南岳文化博大精深、内蕴深厚的感觉。# D% y* C# y" `( M# i
提高宗教祭祀文化上的认识固然必要,但更快更好地宣传这种独具魅力的祈祷文化更是重要。仅靠等着旅人进门来观看了解,这种被动的宣传方式是远远不够的,在这样一个信息大爆炸的现代社会,需要选择主动出击,利用各种现代化媒体手段来解读“南岳这本无字书”, 宣传推介旅游文化,使其上档次、有品位、打造文化旅游精品,使更多的人产生想认识南岳、了解南岳的欲望,使“心愿之旅的南岳衡山”更深入人心。
无助呵2 t* z; s$ V1 s2 {
不堪重负哈
楼主,能把南岳的古老的文化分析的如此细致+ V0 Q2 E6 o! a- \3 V& J; h
                     在下佩服佩服
其实南岳的祭祖文化可在做专题的,我还可以提一点,可是找做“家祭文”那些人,研究一下祭文件韵律和唱腔。
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